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But the major discovery of anatomy and physiology in the last half-century has been that of the subtle, comprehensive, and intimate linkages and interactions. enables understanding of subjects such as anatomy and physiology and assists in the mastery of some clinical and surgical skills. However, there are other. Taking into account the unique anatomy and physiology of these animals is by humane euthanasia, except where the pain and distress of handling or.


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Plate XIX depicts a dissected man carrying a walking stick and resting on a classical pedestal.


The landscape background, though less detailed, anatomie physiologie humane similar to ones found in the works of earlier master anatomists such as Andreas Vesalius and Adriaan van den Spiegel.

The subject's upper arm and chest musculature is exposed, with individual muscles numbered for identification. The irony of depicting the anatomical models as courtiers is that only criminals, indigents, and strangers were allowed by law to be dissected for medical purposes.


These rather simple anatomical models with removable organs were often used by physicians and midwives to instruct lay people on the anatomy of their bodies and especially on how human pregnancy takes place. Most of the extant examples are pregnant females—like the one on display here—giving special attention anatomie physiologie humane care to the fetus growing in the anatomie physiologie humane uterus.

All the links seem to be present in the chain required for the control of almost all physiological processes, general health, and even resistance to infection, by the central nervous via the autonomic and endocrine systems.

As a central connecting link between exteroceptors and internal control, interoceptors and external action, in general between behavior and internal physiology, the hypothalamus seems to play a fundamental role in all vertebrates--even down to lampreys Young, ; and with the development of the neocortex in mammals a wealth of new connections have insured the continued integration, and older cortical structures have been pressed into service as relays, assuming such importance in this role that they have been christened by one worker the anatomie physiologie humane brain" MacLean, Against this background of anatomical and physiological knowledge, and indeed often considerably in advance of it, the partly empirical discipline of psychosomatic medicine has assumed the proportions of a major branch of science, with several journals and an abundant literature see especially Wittkower and Cleghorn, anatomie physiologie humane.

It is now almost undisputed ground that any aspect of a man's physiology and health is to a varying extent at the mercy of what goes on in his brain. Behavioral factors are thus assuming their proper status in human medicine.

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The terms "organic" and "functional" are still used, quite properly, in anatomie physiologie humane the present state of a patient, and in predicting the amount of interference dietary, pharmacological, surgical, etc. But when we consider the origin of diseased states, we are always concerned with the interaction of a set of casual factors, among which central nervous mechanisms and their conditions loom large.

At one end of the scale they may have to be quite exceptionally adaptive and active to save their possessor from, say, an epidemic pathogen to which he is not specially resistant on genetic or nutritional grounds; at the other, they can take advantage of the slightest environmental stimulus to prostrate him with almost any kind of illness.

The specificity of a diseased state may, in turn, be determined by central nervous and anatomie physiologie humane factors in any proportions along a similar scale cf.

This anatomie physiologie humane of causal situation is found in many biological contexts, and has been the subject of various kinds of formal treatment Quastler, ; Russell et al, The term 'psychosomatics' is among the most inept and confusing ever introduced into science.

What it means in actual usage is the relation between central nervous states partly determined by events in the external environment and internal physiology or pathology.


The prefix 'psycho' is unsatisfactory in itself, and until telepathy ceases to be a subject, and becomes a technique of scientific study, there is no justification for preferring this prefix to that of 'etho', now regularly used in the sense of 'behavioral' Russell, in press, c.

The suffix 'somatics' is even worse, for it is used in the exactly contrary sense to that anatomie physiologie humane in anatomy and physiology since the nineteenth century.

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The proper term for the matter in hand would be the unattractive hybrid 'ethoviscerals'. The point is not academic in our present context.

The mind-body dichotomy is an entirely pathological fantasy, whose casual origin has been analyzed elsewhere Russell and Russell, in press.

It was first thrust upon science by Descartes. No doubt the same factors which compelled him to rationalize in this way permitted him to make his really valuable scientific invention of Cartesian coordinates.

It is relevant in this book because it led at once to the notion that nonhuman animals, being 'mindless' or 'soulless', have no feelings and can anatomie physiologie humane hurt with complete abandon, a principle Malebranche is said to have made the subject of practical demonstrations cf.

We retain the term 'psychosomatics', but we must keep in mind that it simply concerns the relationship between what goes on in our brains our feelings, or moods--see next chapter and what goes on in our viscera.

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In this sense, there can anatomie physiologie humane no doubt that for lower animals the source for much of our knowledge of all the physiological cross-connectionspsychosomatics is just as important a relationship as it is for ourselves.

It is regrettable alike on humane and scientific grounds that so large a proportion of the study of psychosomatics in animals has so far been carried out with the bludgeon of 'stress' of the more severe kinds.

Everything about the rich physiological network suggests the possibility of much more refined effects of behavior upon internal states. Nevertheless, the more subtle interactions are beginning to be studied.

InBeach published a thoughtful review of animal psychosomatics in which, incidentally, he exposed with a anatomie physiologie humane and sharp scalpel the disease of thought underlying the term itself. For it is in the former field that we know most about the complex effects of the physical and social environment on endocrine control units via the central nervous system --alike in pathological and adaptive function.