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Bioquímica. by Mertz, Edwin T. Bioquímica: fundamentos para medicina y ciencias de la vida. by Muller-Esterl by Pacheco Leal, Daniel. Publisher: México. BIOQUIMICA MEDICA [PACHECO LEAL DANIEL] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bioquimica / Biochemistry by Elena Feduchi Canosa - - pages Bioquímica médica by Daniel Pacheco, Daniel Pacheco Leal - - pages.


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The impairment of astrocyte functions is associated with diabetes mellitus and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Astrocytes have been proposed to be essential cells for neuroprotection pacheco leal bioquimica elevated levels of methylglyoxal MGa highly reactive aldehyde derived from the glycolytic pathway.

Departamento de Bioquímica

MG exposure impairs primary astrocyte viability, as evaluated by different assays, and these cells respond to MG elevation by increasing glyoxalase 1 activity and glutathione levels, which improve cell viability and survival.

However, C6 glioma cells have shown strong signs of resistance against MG, without significant changes in pacheco leal bioquimica glyoxalase system.

Results for aminoguanidine coincubation support the pacheco leal bioquimica that MG toxicity is mediated by glycation.

We found a significant decrease in glutamate uptake pacheco leal bioquimica astrocytes, without changes in the expression of the major transporters. Carbenoxolone, a nonspecific inhibitor of gap junctions, prevented the cytotoxicity induced by MG in astrocyte cultures.

Thus, our data reinforce the pacheco leal bioquimica that astrocyte viability depends on gap junctions and that the impairment induced by MG involves glutamate excitotoxicity. The astrocyte susceptibility to MG emphasizes the importance of this compound in neurodegenerative diseases, where the neuronal damage induced by MG may be aggravated by the commitment of the cells charged with MG clearance.


Introduction Astrocytes are essential for the survival and activity of neurons in physiological and pathological conditions [ 1 ].

The key role of astrocytes in the brain includes defense against oxidative stress, regulation of the synthesis, release of glutathione GSHglutamate uptake, and the modulation of synaptic activity, amongst pacheco leal bioquimica mechanisms [ 2 pacheco leal bioquimica, 3 ].

Brain tissue is highly dependent on glucose, not only as an energetic source but also for the synthesis of glutamate and GSH.

Bioquímica médica - Daniel Pacheco, Daniel Pacheco Leal - Google книги

However, an elevated flow of glucose in the brain tissue, as occurs in diabetes mellitus, can lead to deviations from the glycolytic pathway, causing elevations in methylglyoxal MGan extremely reactive aldehyde that is involved in dicarbonyl stress and advanced glycation end product AGE pacheco leal bioquimica from proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids [ 5 ].

In this context, the glyoxalase system is important for detoxifying MG and, therefore, for maintaining MG concentrations under control, in turn, preventing AGE formation [ 6 ].

We have investigated the effects of MG exposure on C6 glioma cells [ 7 ], acute brain slices [ 8 ], and on rat behavior in vivo [ 9 ].


However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of MG on isolated astrocytes and, consequently, on their specific activities. Data in the literature indicate that the impairment of astrocyte functions is linked to pacheco leal bioquimica diseases [ 10 ], such as Alzheimer's disease, where AGE accumulates in the neurons and astroglia, as well as in amyloid plaques [ 11 ].

Prácticas de química general, química organica y bioquímica

The importance of astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection against elevated levels of MG has been proposed [ 3 ]. Although astrocytes have a more developed glyoxalase system than neurons, protecting them from dicarbonyl stress [ 1213 ], it has been suggested that astrocytes are also damaged by glycation processes in diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases [ 1114 ].

In fact, its direct effects on astrocytes could aggravate the neuronal damage that is induced by MG. We, herein, studied the direct susceptibility of primary astrocyte cultures from Wistar rats to MG exposure, evaluating specific changes in the glyoxalase system, GSH content, glutamate uptake, and gap junction activity.

Moreover, we compared the results of primary astrocyte cultures with those of C6 pacheco leal bioquimica cells, assuming eventual differences between these two glial cultures.

Pacheco leal bioquimica and Methods 2. All other chemicals were purchased from local commercial suppliers. Primary Astrocyte Culture Primary astrocyte cultures from Wistar rats were prepared as previously described [ 15 ].